In the previous activity you learned that the ‘stuff’ the universe is made of is called matter (definition:any material that has a mass and takes up space) , which is made up of elements (definition:a substance that has specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down to a smaller form through ordinary chemical reactions). Each element is a unique type of atom. (definition:smallest unit of that shows the chemical properties of an element)
Remember that an individual atom is structured from three (3) subatomic particles called:
Scientists organize all elements on the periodic table.
Watch the video The Periodic Table Song from AsapSCIENCE:
A Bohr-Rutherford diagram shows a visual representation of the atom (definition:smallest unit of that shows the chemical properties of an element; made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons) and accounts for the organization of its protons (definition:positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus), neutrons (definition:neutral (no charge) subatomic particle found in the nucleus), and electrons. (definition:negatively charged subatomic particle found orbiting the nucleus)
An example of a Bohr-Rutherford Diagram for oxygen is shown in Figure #2:
Protons (p+) and neutrons (n0) are shown in the nucleus (centre)
Electrons (red dots) are shown to orbit (move around) the nucleus in energy shells
Valence electrons are those that are in the outermost energy shell
Oxygen has 6 valence electron
A lot of emphases is placed on the outside electrons since these are the ones that move from one atom to another. This movement results in a chemical change! (definition:A change in a substances that involves the formation of a new product that is different from the original; consider the six clues to identify if a chemical change has occurred - energy produced, new colour, new smell, bubbles (gas), new solid forms, change is difficult to reverse.)
Review Figure #3 (below) that shows the Bohr-Rutherford diagrams for the first 20 elements of the periodic table.
While reviewing the picture, complete the Exploration Framework to prompt your thinking and formulate inquiry-based questions.
Let's consider what patterns and trends allow the periodic table to be organized the way it is:
In your graphic organizer, record observations that compare and contrast (look for similarities and differences) the following:
Two elements side-by-side (horizontal)
Two elements adjacent (vertical)
Two non-adjacent elements in the same period (horizontal row)
Two non-adjacent elements in the same group (vertical column)
How did the Periodic Table of Elements change our understanding of the world?
Watch the video Solving the puzzle of the Periodic Table from TEDEd:
While watching the video, use the KWHLAQ Chart to record your thoughts and ideas.
The Periodic Table of Elements is organized based on the physical properties (definition: a characteristic of a substance observed without creating a new substance; can be qualitative or quantitative) and chemical properties (definition:a description of what a substance does when it reacts to produce a new substance; an ability or behaviour) of the elements.
The Periodic Table is organized such that elements are arranged in groups that go vertically (up and down) and are numbered 1 - 18, while periods go horizontally (across) and are numbered 1 - 7. Metals are found to the right of the staircase and non-metals are found to the left of the staircase; metalloids are found to be touching the staircase and include.
Review the diagram below to become more familiar with how the periodic table is organized.
To further explore the organization of the Periodic Table and to become familiar with key patterns and trends, launch the TED-Ed clickable Periodic Table.
(by clicking the figure below or the link above).
This periodic table allows you to click on each element (definition:a substance that has specific chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down to a smaller form through ordinary chemical reactions) and watch a video that will explain and demonstrate key physical and chemical properties of that element.
How can we use the knowledge gained from identifying and understanding the physical and chemical properties of matter?
Let’s try to turn Mercury into Gold!